Diabetes is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels. Glucose is a crucial source of energy for cells, and its levels need to be carefully controlled for the body to function properly. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, plays a key role in this process.

There are two main types of diabetes:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes:
    • In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
    • As a result, the body cannot produce enough insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood.
    • Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in childhood or adolescence and requires lifelong insulin therapy.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes:
    • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the body’s inability to use insulin effectively (insulin resistance) and a gradual decline in insulin production.
    • It is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet.
    • Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults, but it can also occur in children and adolescents.
    • Management may involve lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and, in some cases, insulin therapy.

Common symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to serious complications, including cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, nerve damage, and vision problems.

Managing diabetes involves monitoring blood sugar levels, adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and taking medications or insulin as prescribed by a healthcare provider. Regular medical check-ups and blood tests are essential for monitoring and managing the condition effectively. Early diagnosis and proper management are crucial in preventing complications associated with diabetes.

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